Tag Archive for: Flame Brazing

Selecting the Correct Flux –WHAT?
The first requirement of an Aluminium brazing is to be chemically effective.
Fluxes are categorized as active (corrosive) and inert (noncorrosive).

Fluoride base fluxes → NON‐CORROSIVE
The fluxes leave the white gritty residue on the part. These fluxes include the higher temperature potassium
aluminium fluoride and the lower activated cesium aluminium fluoride Fluoride flux residues is tightly adhered to aluminium surface, relatively insoluble, not necessary to be removed. Fluoride flux operates by melting, spreading and dissolving of aluminium oxide layer.

Active fluxes ‐ Chloride base fluxes → CORROSIVE
The appearance of the part after brazing is bright and shiny. The chloride post braze residues must be removed by water washing or chemical treatment, to prevent the occurrence of electrolytic corrosion. These fluxes require a significant exposure to hot water to remove the corrosive flux residues. Attention must be given to the outside of the assembly and to any residues that have migrated to the inside of the part.
Chloride flux is reported to work penetrating aluminium oxides at weak points and breaking up the oxide/aluminium bond.

Selecting the Correct Flux –WHY?
Effect of Mg content on mechanical properties and braze ability of Al‐alloys.

Microsoft PowerPoint - HPa Flame brazing.pptx

0,3‐0,6% Σ(Mg+Cu)% -> 2% cesium flux
0,6‐0,9% Σ(Mg+Cu)% -> 6‐10% cesium flux
0,9‐2% Σ(Mg+Cu)% -> 100% cesium flux
>2% Σ(Mg+Cu)% -> 726/0726 pastes

Correct filler metal / Correct flux
Fluxes must be thermally matched to the melting phase of the braze filler base metal.

Microsoft PowerPoint - HPa Flame brazing.pptx

CORROSIVE flux paste for the flame brazing of aluminium materials
Al‐FLUX 0726/2zG – Flux Paste
• As the active component of Corrosive‐Flux‐Paste, AL‐Flux 0726 contains a mixture of LiCl,
NaCl, KCl, inorganic‐ and complex‐ fluorides.
• Organic carrier systems are used to prepare a wide range of pastes for the flame brazing of
aluminium materials.
• Al‐Flux 0726 Flux Paste is typically applied by dispensing and brushing for flame brazing. No
component mixing is required. Products are supplied as ready to use products, requiring short

Download product information.

NON‐CORROSIVE Flux Paste for the flame brazing of aluminium materials
NOCOLOK® 028/55 Cs2 ‐ Flux Paste
NOCOLOK® 028/55 Cs3 ‐ Flux Paste
NOCOLOK® 028 CsD ‐ Flux Paste
From low‐temperature brazing (450°C) to the brazing of high‐strength aluminium alloys.

Download product information.

To be continued…

Aluminium joining – Brazing ‐ Flux function

What is brazing?
Brazing is the joining of metals using a molten filler metal. On melting, the filler metal spreads between the closely fitted surfaces, forms a fillet around the joint and on cooling forms a metallurgical bond. By technical definition ‘brazing’ is a joining process in which the filler metal melting temperature is above 450°C, but below the melting point of the metals to be joined.

Aluminium brazing ‐ How does it work?
An aluminium oxide layer is formed instantly on aluminium in the presence of oxygen. This oxide layer has to be removed before brazing and the formation of a new oxide layer has to be prevented. The oxide layer is chemically dissolved by a FLUX.



Aluminium joining – Flame Brazing

Flame (torch) brazing of aluminium involves locally applied heat typically generated by a slightly reducing oxy‐acetylene or oxy‐natural gas flame. (Gas mixture is preferred as it is cheaper and more comfortable).
Care must be taken to ensure even heat distribution. As with other aluminium brazing processes, close temperature control is important – it`must be closely monitored as there is no colour change in the aluminium to indicate temperature.




Aluminium joining – Basic Requirements

The first requirement of an Aluminium brazing is to be chemically effective.
Fluxes are categorized as active (corrosive) and inert (noncorrosive)

Between liquidus and solidus of filler metal
Decide how to manage the small thermal window between the melting temperature of the brazing filler metal and thermal damage to the base metals

Apart from the selection of flux and filler metal, important process parameters are the cleanliness and proper geometrical alignment of the individual components.

To be continued…

Making fire from water is a seemingly insoluble contradiction – but in 2014 the project will hit the markets.

Instead of propane or acetylene, hydrogen is burnt, which in turn is produced from water in an electrolyzer. Also, the oxygen for the combustion arises from the chemical decomposition. The portable unit requires a standard 220 volt outlet and plenty of water. Therefore, no pressure cylinders for fuel gas and oxygen are required.


In addition, the flame burns much more smoothly and the hot spot is located outside of the burner head. The first tests, brazing aluminum, have been completed successfully.

The Safe Flame project is supported by the EU and actively supported by 11 partners, including EABS (The European Association for Brazing and Soldering).

Solvay supporting EABS technical awareness days for the joining of aluminium and copper piping in the huge global HVACR market. These will commence in January 2014 and run through out the year and will include ALL flames for brazing Al/Al, Al/Cu and Cu/Cu together with appropriate brazing alloys and fluxes.

For further information either contact Solvay or EABS.


A video and more information can be found on Euronews.com


The European Association for Brazing and soldering — EABS for short — together with experts from Solvay Fluor, holds technical training seminars in which the theory and practice of flame and furnace aluminium brazing are communicated in detail.

40 interested participants from all over the world gather for the two day seminar in Hannover, Germany: technical staff, design and production engineers as well as production engineering managers.

EABS Seminar

More information about the seminar.

Brazing aluminium to copper is common in the refrigeration industry where copper tubes are brazed to aluminium roll-bond panels or tubes. To join aluminium and copper using brazing technology and standard NOCOLOK® Flux, flame brazing would be applicable (as well as using a low-melting flux with a low-melting filler metal). It is very similar to brazing aluminium to aluminium, but some precautions are necessary.

However, when copper is brazed to aluminium and the heating process takes too long, the copper will diffuse into the aluminium at the joints. A low melting Al-Cu alloy (Al-Cu33 eutectic temperature 548°C) is thus formatted, and this could lead to erosion by perforation.

Therefore, during the brazing process, the flame should never be directly applied to the joint, because the heat should be transferred by conduction through the parts to be brazed. As soon as the filler metal begins to melt, the flame must be quickly removed.

A second issue with brazing copper to aluminium is that the aluminium has a much lower melting point than copper (Al: app. 650°C; and Cu: above 1000°C). Therefore, the flame is usually directed on the copper. Nevertheless, once the heat transferred from the copper to the aluminium reaches the melting range of aluminium, it will start to burn down very fast, while the copper is still taking the heat. The formation of the above mentioned low melting Al-Cu alloy accelerates the destruction of the aluminium components.

Consequently, flame Brazing of aluminium to copper is a delicate process and requires some experience. But it is used by many companies for large scale production. But it is next to impossible in furnace brazing. There are no conventional furnace designs which will cool quickly enough to halt the continual formation of the aluminium-copper eutectic. For this reason, brazing copper to aluminium in a furnace is not practiced.

There are three different ways to provide (or generate) filler metal in flame brazing of aluminium to copper.

  • Use of Al-Si filler alloy (Al-Si 12 – AA4047). Standard procedure like in flame brazing of aluminium to aluminium – just a little bit faster to avoid burn-through.
  • Rely on the formation of Al-Cu alloy during the brazing cycle. If this method is used, a support provided by a thin Stainless Steel tube along the interior joint area can provide additional structural integrity.
  • A pre-heated copper tube is inserted very fast into an aluminium tube. The mechanical energy released will generate additional heat. Abrasion of surface oxide by the inserted tube promotes the formation of Al-Cu filler alloy. This process works with and without flux (however, results are better with flux).